|The following excerpt is from Chapter 1 of "The 19 Deadly Sins of Software Security" written by Michael Howard, David LeBlanc and John Viega. Click for the complete book excerpt series or visit McGraw-Hill to purchase the book.|
Introduction: Overview of the sin
Buffer overruns have long been recognized as a problem in low-level languages. The core problem is that user data and program flow control information are intermingled for the sake of performance, and low-level languages allow direct access to application memory. C and C++ are the two most popular languages afflicted with buffer overruns.
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Strictly speaking, a buffer overrun occurs when a program allows input to write beyond the end of the allocated buffer, but there are several associated problems that often have the same effect. One of the most interesting is format string bugs, which we cover in Sin 2. Another incarnation of the problem occurs when an attacker is allowed to write at an arbitrary memory location outside of an array in the application, and while, strictly speaking, this isn't a classic buffer overrun, we'll cover that here too.
The effect of a buffer overrun is anything from a crash to the attacker gaining complete control of the application, and if the application is running as a high-level user (root, administrator, or local system), then control of the entire operating system and any other users who are currently logged on, or will log on, is in the hands of the attacker. If the application in question is a network service, the result of the flaw could be a worm. The first well-known Internet worm exploited a buffer overrun in the finger server, and was known as the Robert T. Morris (or just Morris) finger worm. Although it would seem as if we'd have learned how to avoid buffer overruns since one nearly brought down the Internet in 1988, we continue to see frequent reports of buffer overruns in many types of software.
Although one might think that only sloppy, careless programmers fall prey to buffer overruns, the problem is complex, many of the solutions are not simple, and anyone who has written enough C/C++ code has almost certainly made this mistake. The author of this chapter, who teaches other developers how to write more secure code, has shipped an off-by-one overflow to customers. Even very good, very careful programmers make mistakes, and the very best programmers know how easy it is to slip up and put solid testing practices in place to catch errors.
Click for the next excerpt in this series: Affected languages