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What is the multiple desktop feature in Windows 10?

The Windows 10 multiple desktop features gives workers the feel of using multiple monitors on the same screen, which can increase productivity for users that keep many windows open at once.

Windows 10's multiple desktop feature has caused a lot of confusion which is due in part to its name. You might think that "multiple desktop" means multiple monitors, but it's more of a virtual multi-monitor feature.

The multiple desktop feature has also been called a native virtual desktop, but it has nothing to do with desktop virtualization or virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI).

The Windows 10 multi-display feature provides multi-monitor-like capabilities to those who have only a single monitor. The feature essentially adds desktop real estate without requiring any new hardware. A similar feature already exists in some Linux builds, so the idea is not entirely new.

The multi-display feature allows the user to have multiple views of the Windows desktop. Controls at the bottom of the screen let users choose which view they want to look at and toggle between virtual monitors. If a user launches an application, he can place that application on any of the virtual monitors. That way, he can run the application without cluttering the primary display area.

In a business environment, the multi-display feature can help users work more efficiently. A user might have email open in one virtual display while he runs a line of business application in another. The user can easily create even more virtual displays if necessary.  

The multi-display feature is set up in a way that allows the user to switch between virtual monitors without worrying about minimizing and restoring windows. User can arrange their open windows in a way that makes the most sense for the way that they work.

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The multiple desktops is available for earlier versions of windows through the Sysinternals Suite.
So... Windows 10 catches up with what Mac OSX has had for four or five generations. That's Microsoft innovation for you...
This has been a great feature of major Linux distributions which I’ve been using for years, and I’m glad to see that Microsoft is bringing the feature to Windows machines. I get pretty spoiled by having multiple monitors to work on at home or the office, and going down to a single monitor when using my laptop elsewhere certainly puts a dent in productivity.
Yup as mnccarlson said, Windows XP and higher has native support for multiple desktops, it's just that finally in Windows 10, they allow the feature!